- '-ed' adjectives
- ◊ GRAMMARA large number of adjectives end in `-ed'.\◊ related to verbsMany of them have the same form as the past participle of a transitive verb, and have a passive meaning. For example, a `frightened' person is a person who has been frightened by something.
When I saw my face in the mirror, I was astonished at the change.\
Soak dried fruit in water before cooking it.Some past participles which do not end in `-ed' are also used as adjectives. They are sometimes called `-ed' adjectives.
It is a good idea to get at least two written estimates.\
...searching for a lost ball.A few `-ed' adjectives are related to intransitive verbs and have an active meaning. For example, an `escaped' prisoner is a prisoner who has escaped.\The following `-ed' adjectives have an active meaning:accumulated, dated, escaped, faded, fallen, retired, swollen, wilted
She is the daughter of a retired army officer.\
...a tall woman with a swollen leg.◊ related to verbs but different in meaningSome `-ed' adjectives are related to verbs in form, but have a different meaning from the usual meaning of the verb. For example, to `attach' something to something else means to join or fasten it on, but a person who is `attached' to someone or something is very fond of them.
The tiles had been attached with an inferior adhesive material and were already beginning to fall off.\
`Oh, yes,' says Howard, `I'm quite attached to Henry. I've known him for ages.'The following adjectives have a different meaning from the usual or commonest meaning of the related verb:advanced, attached, determined, disposed, disturbed, guarded, marked, mixed, noted\◊ related to nounsMany adjectives are formed by adding `-ed' to a noun. They indicate that a person or thing has the thing that the noun refers to. For example, a `bearded' man has a beard.\The following adjectives are formed by adding `-ed' to a noun:armoured, barbed, beaded, bearded, detailed, flowered, freckled, gifted, gloved, hooded, pointed, principled, salaried, skilled, spotted, striped, turbaned, veiled, walled, winged
The visitor was a bearded man with mean and unreliable eyes.\
Every skilled adult reader takes all of this for granted.◊ not related to verbs or nounsThere are a few `-ed' adjectives that are not related to verbs or nouns in the ways described above. For example, the adjective `antiquated' is not related to a verb, because there is no such verb as `antiquate'.\The following adjectives are not directly related to verbs or nouns:antiquated, ashamed, assorted, beloved, bloated, concerted, crazed, deceased, indebted, rugged, sophisticated
It was not until the 1970s that a concerted effort was made to import the game of pool into Britain.\
Without language, complex social systems and sophisticated technology would be impossible.
Useful english dictionary. 2012.